Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Brechts The Life of Galileo Overturning Naturalist Theatre - Literature Essay Samples

Brecht’s development of epic theatre challenged many aspects of the popular conventions of naturalism and expressionism that were prevalent during his rise to prominence in the 1920s. In The Life of Galileo, elements of epic theatre such as the use of song and verse, and, most notably, the presentation of arguments and reasoning as opposed to emotion and feeling, would have disconcerted an audience predominantly exposed to naturalistic concepts. This is due to the radically different way in which one must observe and react to the drama. In this essay, I will evaluate the profound variances between the conventional naturalistic or ‘dramatic’ theatre, and the new ‘epic’ theatre formulated by Brecht.Brecht and his contemporaries were exposed to the naturalistic drama of playwrights such as Gerhardt Hauptmann, prior to the development of Brecht’s own practice of epic theatre. Audience expectation included the principle of the suspension of disbelie f, whereby the audience would forget they are watching a play and become complicit in the action. Characters were explored and developed in depth in order to connect the audience on a sympathetic level; the morals, sympathies and judgments were handed directly to the audience rather than suggested. This was true of expressionist theatre, which was also popular at this time. Esslin has criticised this style of theatre, as, in his opinion, it seeks to create ‘the maximum impression of emotional intensity by indulgence in hysterical outbursts and paroxysms of uncontrolled roaring and inarticulate anguish’ and included ‘orgies of vocal excess and apoplectic breast beating’ (Esslin 1970: 88). Indeed, Brecht found such dramatic theatre to be lacking in intellectual provocation, and thus wanted to produce a style of theatre which demanded more, mentally, from the audience. Rorrison notes that ‘from the beginning of his career Brecht had fought a running batt le against the conventional theatre of his day which he dismissed as ‘culinary’, since, like expert cooking, it delighted the senses without impinging on the mind’ (Rorrison: xxxiv). Indeed, Brecht went on to develop a type of theatre that solicited the audience to make informed and subjective judgments about the issues presented. He questioned: ‘how can theatre be entertaining and at the same time instructive? How can it be taken†¦from a place of illusion to a place of insight?’ (Brecht 1939). In The Life of Galileo, Brecht presents a scientific debate concerning the universe; the audience is not expected to identify with the characters, as they are in naturalistic theatre. Indeed, Galileo is a fundamentally non-heroic protagonist, in that we are not privy to his thought processes as one may be in one a Shakespearean character’s soliloquy, and Brecht invites the audience to make judgements on the scientific debate and not to feel cathars is or sympathy with characters. This would be a radical challenge for those used to applying their empathy rather than their reason to their experience of drama.Unlike the ‘fourth wall’ convention of naturalistic theatre, Brecht used the verfremdungseffekt or ‘alienation technique’ to ensure that the audience was not influenced by their emotions and could make subjective conclusions about the historical account. Certainly, in The Life of Galileo, the characters are rarely explored or presented in a way that would suggest obvious spectator sympathy, as the scenes consist almost entirely of academic discourses and demonstrations; the scenes are representational of historical events (presented for didactic purposes), which differs from naturalistic drama that portrays action to be happening in the present, right before the eyes of the spectators (indented to produce an emotional response). Brecht’s development of the principle of gestus additionally he lps to remind the audience that the actors are not the characters themselves, and are merely accounting for a past event. Unlike the approach expected by Brecht’s contemporary audience, whereby the actor works to identify with their character, gestus is the concept of representing a basic social attitude in a stylized way, which helps to make a point rather than exploiting, on an emotional level, the actor-audience relationship. For instance, The First Secretary replies ‘(mechanically)’ (Brecht 1980: 61); the characterisation is representational of a type of role, as opposed to a life-like impersonation. In Brecht’s productions, ‘no emotional faking was tolerated’ (Volker 1979: 72) and actors were asked to almost narrate the characters’ gestures and movements rather than becoming the character. Smith notes that, ‘by means of gestus, epic theatre draws the spectator away from the well-made play, with its closed forms and consumer i deologies, breaking the play’s conventions open to view and leaving them open at the play’s conclusion. Gestus attempts to energize the spectator to continue the text outside the theatre’ (Smith: 493). Brecht’s intentions are indeed to allow his audience to make their own conclusions of the information they have been presented; the ‘naturalist’ audience would have been more familiar with being spoon-fed a conclusive moral or feeling. Brecht first developed gestus to satirise fascists, but also ‘probably sensed†¦that dilemmas facing women, as estranged and disenfranchised members of society, would articulate his own views’ (Smith: 491). In scene 3, Galileo dismisses Virginia’s interest in the telescope, saying that ‘it’s not a toy’ (Brecht 1980: 31), when she asks to have a look. He is then ‘Talking past his daughter to Sagredo’ (Brecht 1980: 33). This demonstrates how Brecht undermine s his characters to make us maintain a critical detachment; his inclusion of such obvious sexism (acknowledged in the stage directions) illustrates how Brecht’s Marxist beliefs encourage the viewer to challenge the status quo. Thus, here Brecht demonstrates the injustices of the privileged towards those with less power. Certainly, ‘the success of gestus depends on the production’s sensitivity to context and audience’ (Smith: 494). Therefore, by using this reference, Brecht is suggesting the importance of social change through his epic principles. Although unsettling, such issues raised in this play were of relevance to the contemporary audience. Indeed, through the satirical nature of gestus, the audience is exposed more explicitly to the themes and purpose of the play than the conventional naturalistic theatre. In Scene 6, the stage directions describe the atmosphere as ‘extremely hilarious’ (Brecht 1980: 50). Pathos may be expected in this s cene as, in naturalistic theatre, the tension as Galileo awaits the results of his case would be created so that the audience may sympathise with the character. However, giving it a ‘hilarious’ atmosphere (with the monks comically mocking Galileo) steers away from this so that the audience may make their own judgments about the action without being made to feel a certain emotion. This would have been a peculiar change for the spectators used to the building of suspense and tension that articulates how the audience should feel. Through this, Brecht does not enforce a specific emotion on the observers, so that they may make independent judgments of the action. In The Life of Galileo, Brecht uses imagery as rhetoric devices, which is further indicative of a narrative in place of a dramatic plot, exploring less into character and more into the issue in the storyline. For instance, in scene 7, Galileo gives the example of when he was young: ‘When I was so high†¦I stood on a ship and called out ‘The shore is moving away.’ Today I realise that the shore was standing still and the ship moving away’ (Brecht 1980: 57) This simple, yet effective, image that he uses to explain the realisation of new theories and discoveries in the world of science serves as a rhetorical device, aiding Brecht’s argument, rather than the audience’s relationship with the protagonist. It also helps to shift the perspectives of the audience and challenge their fundamental assumptions. This is similarly true of the example of the oyster and the pearl that Galileo uses to describe the significance of reason over faith (Brecht 1980: 66), which would feel, to the audience, more like a stylistic argument than realistic dialogue. Brecht outlines the difference between dramatic and epic theatre as being concerned with reason rather than feeling. Indeed, these images are fluently delivered rhetoric, and therefore less naturalistic, and more o f an ‘argument’ than a ‘suggestion’; ‘epic theatre was to tell a story in a way that invited the audience to consider the events involved and then to make their own assessment of them’ (Rorrison: xxxvi) In scene 7, Brecht uses Lorenzo di Medici’s famous poem: ‘this lovely springtime cannot last/ So pluck your roses before May is past’ (Brecht 1980: 60). This reference to Galileo’s limited timespan in which to research his theories portrays the information the audience requires in a stylized way, so that they are being given details of the plot rather than learning more about the thought processes of the characters, which would cause increased audience sympathy and withdraw from a subjective assessment of events. Additionally, scenes 10 and 15 include the songs and role-play with puppets. The songs are more obviously ‘gestic’ than the dialogue (much like the ‘epic’ demonstrations of fundamenta l theories presented in comic and infantile ways, such as the apple or the chair demonstrations of the rotation of the earth around the sun) which would have been more unsettling for an audience accustomed to viewing realistic action. It is, however, of particular importance to portray these ‘epic’ moments as the whole play is based on the arguments for and against Galileo’s theories, so must be understood by the audience even if it seems less naturalistic; the emphasis, in Brecht’s productions, was on the audience’s own informed judgement and less on displaying a realistic story. The Life of Galileo, in particular, is anti-emotionalist because the theme of the play asks the audience to use this independent judgment rather than empathy; Galileo’s theories of reason over faith directly mirror Brecht’s theories of the significance of personal reflection over dictated catharsis. Slide projections and music aid the verfremdungseffekt by co mmenting on the action itself, so that ‘the audience can take pleasure in taking issue with the commentary. Slides and music, let us say, create a kind of meta-representation of events’ (Stewart and Nicholls: 60) or ‘anti-illusionistic devices to eliminate suspense’ (Rorrison: xxxviii)- for example, when, in scene 3 Galileo’s letter appears on a curtain. An audience used to naturalist theatre would find this unsettling because of the way it draws attention to the illusion being presented. However, ‘to suggest that scenic headings are devices which destroy suspense is like saying that newspaper headlines make reading the stories unnecessary’ (Needle: 201). Indeed, in epic theatre, we need to know the outcome, and with anti-naturalistic theatre we are more engaged with the consciously artificial process rather than the dramatic resolution. By choosing a well-known historical narrative with a renowned outcome, Brecht was left free to experi ment with presentation that was less expected by the audience.Unlike most naturalistic plays of the 1920s, Brecht’s plays, including The Life of Galileo, were presented using a neutral and bare stage, with minimal and representation props and set. ‘The bareness of the stage exposed the action in a cool, unatmospheric space which was intended to counterbalance the relative lack of epic form in the writing’ (Rorrison: xl). Indeed, Galileo, unlike most of Brecht’s work, includes a linear plot with no narrator or third party commentary, making it, in some ways, more accessible for an audience with the expectation of a naturalistic style. However, this unrealistic, representational set forces the audience to acknowledge that they are facing the issues presented in the play, rather than being involved in a stage-world through a fourth wall, which would be a radically different way of viewing for this audience. Ultimately, while dramatic theory is based on Aristo telian aesthetics that influence the audience to accept things as they are, the Church similarly wishes to preserve the traditional beliefs of the universe. In this sense, Brecht is challenging both Aristotle and the Church with his epic drama and his representation of Galileo’s theories, which both aim to initiate social change. Therefore, Brecht chose the subject matter deliberately as consonant with his theme of reason over emotion. This would have certainly unsettled the expectations of an audience accustomed to naturalism, principally because of the way it requires a didactic rather than an emotional investment in the story. BibliographyBrecht, Bertolt (1964) Brecht on Theatre: The Development of an Aesthetic, ed. John Willett, New York: Hill and WangBrecht, Bertolt On Experimental Theatre (1939) quoted in Hugh Rorrison’s commentary (1986) of The Life of Galileo, London: Methuen London Ltd. p xxxvEsslin, Martin (1970) Brief Chronicles, London: Temple Smith, p 80Ne edle, Jan and Peter Thomson (1980), Brecht, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p 201)Rorrison, Hugh commentary (1986) of The Life of Galileo, London: Methuen London Ltd. pp xxxiv-xxxviiiSmith, Iris (1991) ‘Brecht and Mothers of Epic Theatre’ in Theatre Journal, The John Hopkins University Press pp. 491-493Steward, Robert Scott and Rod Nichollas (2002) ‘Pragmatic Choices: Teaching Applied Aesthetics through Brecht’s ‘Life of Galileo’’ in Journal of Aesthetic Education, University of Illinois Press pp.50-60Volker, K (1979) Brecht: a Biography, London: Marion Boyars p 72

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Effects Of Global Warming On The Natural Habitat And...

â€Å"Emaciated polar bear, what’s to blame?† this heart-breaking photo about an emaciated polar bear in artic was published by CNN in September 14th , 2015. Possible causes for that bear is probably sickness or aging. However, a favorable debate is that the global warming diminishes the natural habitat and food source. This is not a new issue. Global climate change - people try to control it. One of the most powerful ways is to replace the limited amount of fossil fuel, coal, and oil with clean energy. Among several kinds of clean energy, wind power is at the first stage of developing, but promise more than one advantage and for both human being and other living species. It is worthy to be invested on. Scientists have been in a researching marathon to find the newest energy source to expand the variety of energy options. The alternative energy is used to call all the energy sources that replace using of fossil fuel. This tradition al kind of energy has enormous impact on the environment and threat the existence of living species. Specifically, renewable energy is unique type of energy that can’t be exhausted and be constantly renewed. This includes water, sunlight, geothermal heat, tides, and biomass. Being outstanding, wind power is now a major source of renewable energy in the US. As of April 2011, more than 41 GW of wind capacity has been installed, all of which is on land (Dhanju, Firestone, and Kempton). A single 1 MW turbine on land can provide enough electricity toShow MoreRelatedEssay about Global Warming: A Dangerous Reality1439 Words   |  6 PagesGlobal Warming has been a nuisance to environmentalists in recent years. It has been affecting Earth’s ocean s, habitats, and biodiversity. Over the years, scientists have conducted experiments to understand the causes and effects of global warming and they have searched for solutions. They have warned others about the dangers of pollution and human activities and have urged others to do something about it. Films, such as Al Gore’s documentary â€Å"The Inconvenient Truth†, have also raised internationalRead MoreEssay on Global Warming: Humans Are Destroying the Planet1327 Words   |  6 Pagesthat global warming is a serious environmental health problem with its effects reflecting on nature and all of mankind on Earth since the mid-twentieth century – emission of concentrated greenhouse gases, rise of sea levels, melting of polar ice caps, and increase in global surface air temperature. The rise in global surface air temperature causes frequent droughts in dry areas and accelerated ocean warming and hence the rapid increase in sea levels and melting of the polar ice caps. Natural disastersRead MoreThe Human Of Endangered Species1309 Words   |  6 PagesThe environment has always been one of the primary sources credited for the existence on Earth. The environment has provided the human race and Earth with the essentials needed and more for survival. Both living and nonliving things play a role in continuing the constant cycle that keeps everything maintained and in order. When something as small as a plant or as large as a bear is taken from the cycle of life, there are major effects that occur and bring negative problems. Humans are most likelyRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Effects1331 Words   |  6 PagesGlobal Warming Global warming is the causation of the Glaciers melting, sea levels rising, cloud forests drying, and wildlife struggles today. Humans are making this possible because of their release of heat-trapping gasses known as greenhouse gasses by their modern devices. Global warming is the abnormal speedy increase in the Earth’s average surface temperature. It is believed that this is due to the greenhouse gasses that people release into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels.The greenhouseRead MoreGlobal Warming Is A Controversial Issue1602 Words   |  7 PagesScientists are warning us about the deleterious effects of Global Warming, â€Å"Nonscientists† also have separate views on the same issue. This indicates that Global Warming is a controversial issue that needs to be addressed. First, we need to understand the concept of â€Å"Global Warming.† Global Warming is described as the general increase in atmospheric temperatures worldwide, which results to clima te changes. According to an article titled â€Å"Global Warming,† the earth’s atmosphere contains various gasesRead MoreHumans Cause Global Warming1142 Words   |  5 PagesGlobal Warming Debate Today we are debating the important topic of global warming. As the affirmative team, we strongly believe that global warming is caused by the actions of humans. But this is not just a belief, this is a fact. Global warming, by definition, is a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants. The greenhouse effect is the trapping of theRead MoreEffect of Climate Change on Animals Essay949 Words   |  4 Pagesthat animals are being affected by climate change. Even though the effects are difficult to measure, there are many different ways animals are being affected. With the loss of predator and prey species it affects the life cycles in the food chain. The earth’s climate change causes habitats such as snow, ice, or forest areas to alter, resulting in loss of habitat and food accessibility as well as causing extinction. Global warming is the name given to the increase in the earth’s surface temperatureRead MoreGlobal Climate Change Essay1531 Words   |  7 PagesGlobal Climate Change Climate change is not a new concept; in fact there is evidence of major climate changes throughout the earths history. However since the industrial revolution and especially since world war two, there has been an unprecedented change in the earths atmosphere (Gates 4). As of March 1999, scientists reported the construction of a thousand-year record of the average temperature on earth. The results of their study concluded that a nine hundred-year cooling trend hasRead MoreThe Issue Of Global Warming1701 Words   |  7 Pages The Issue of Global Warming Even though some people believe that there is no such thing as global warming, there has been significant evidence that the Earth is warming. Most scientists believe that the main cause of global warming is human influence. The burning of fossil fuels and the use of fertilizers are the main contributors to the heating of the Earth. Many problems occur as a result of the climate changing. As the climate changes, some animals may become extinct, there is a rise in seaRead MoreThe Consequences Of Global Warming1579 Words   |  7 PagesConsequences of Global Warming What does someone think of when the topic of global warming is presented? They might think of the earth warming, or the sun burning up, but do they think of the affects this issue has caused our Mother Earth or think about what they do on a day-to-day basis as being the prime contributor to this environmental problem? Do they realize or even worry about the next generation dying because of the various factors of global warming? Some may think of global warming as a tale or

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Importance Of Corruption In Fahrenheit 451 - 1209 Words

â€Å"A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots.† - Marcus Garvey. Knowledge is such a valuable thing that if not discovered by people it can make them lose precious knowledge . In the book Fahrenheit 451 valuable knowledge that could be at people s fingertips are banned. The dystopian novel that Ray Bradbury wrote takes you through the main character Guy Montag life as he discovers there s more to than what meets the eye. In this world society had been corrupted and it is now acceptable to rebel because these following circumstances are true, people are brainwashed into thinking there are no good deeds, technology has taken over life itself, and valuable knowledge is banned. It†¦show more content†¦But that was along time ago when they had things different.† Page Kids used to be the face of innocence until they got shown some of the finer things in life such as cars, artillery , etc. So now children are afraid of kids there age because all they think is that they kill each other and don’t think about any of the good deeds. It is acceptable to rebel when society is corrupt because technology is taking over life. Technology has overpowered many aspects of life but could you imagine just by a drop of chemicals you could control what is supposed to be an animal. â€Å" All of those chemical balances and percentages on all of us here in the house are recorded in the master file downstairs. It would be easy for someone to set up a partial combination on the hounds ‘memory’, a touch of amino acids perhaps. That would accout foe what theaniaml did just now. React to me.† Page Animals controlled by the drop of a chemical, well there not even animals anymore because technology has overruled that part of life now too. Imagine instead of going to the beach you can just ask your t.v and you will be there within seconds, but is it actually experiencing things if u just stay in the comfort of your home? â€Å" Thank god for that. You can shut them, say, â€Å"Hold on a moment†. You play god to it. But who has ever torn himself from the claw that encloses you when you drop a seed in a TV parlor? It grows you any shapeShow MoreRelatedComparison Of Technology In Fahrenheit 4511151 Words   |  5 Pagestechnology, from old to new. Both Ernest Cline and Ray Bradbury present worlds that are run by technology.The technology in ready player one and Fahrenheit 451 is both bad and good. Fahrenheit 451 is all about a fireman called Guy Montag who does the opposite of what fireman do, starting fires instead of putting them out. The society in Fahrenheit 451 is forbidden from reading books.People spend their time watching big TVs, radios.Montag’s wife Mildred spends her time watching and is addicted toRead MoreFahrenheit 451: the Firemen851 Words   |  4 PagesRay Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 staunchly contrasts these other writings; rather than presenting some omniscient tale admonishing its audience of the dangers of government hierarchy, Bradbury uses satire to criticize primarily emerging trends in society, providing an account that deems them equally as harrowing and dangerous as some authoritarian government, although he does include a limited number of strands involving an anti-government theme. This unique aspect of Fahrenheit 451 has earned the attentionRead MoreEssay about Future Concerns - Gattaca and Fahrenheit 4511562 Words   |  7 PagesPopular fictions texts expressing views of the future educate audiences about current issues and the dystopias that develop from them. Texts such as the film ‘Gattaca’, directed by Andrew Niccol and novel ‘Fahrenheit 451’ by Ray Bradbury explore futuristic societies and the implications that become of their innovation. Although entertaining, texts such as these are didactic and must be taken seriously, as they communicate messages to audiences regarding prevalent concerns and possible futures basedRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury1802 Words   |  8 Pages75 hours on electronic media and that adults spend at least 77 hours. This obsession with technology was inferred long before smartphones were created. Although it was written in 1953, the novel Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury envisions a future consumed by electronics akin to today’s society. Fahrenheit 451 mirrors the present society because it exhibits the misuse of technology, the influence that technology has on relationships, and the lust for eternal bliss. First, Bradbury anticipates the currentRead MoreAlliteration In Leda And The Swan By Ray Bradbury1852 Words   |  8 Pagesusually) (Literature: A Portable Anthology). Example: In Fahrenheit 451, Montag states, â€Å"It’s fine work. Monday burn Millay, Wednesday Whitman, Friday Faulkner, burn’em to ashes. That’s our official slogan.† The repetition sound of â€Å"M,† â€Å"W,† and â€Å"F,† show alliteration (Bradbury 6). Allusion: A reference to a well-known person, place, place, event, literary work, or work of art (Literary Devices). Example: On page fifty-seven of Fahrenheit 451, Beatty says, â€Å"Colored people don’t like Little Black SamboRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury2277 Words   |  10 Pages Imagine a society completely run by technology—robotic workers, home theatres, supreme medical care. Despite the benefits technology could provide, its flaws are masked away by the glossy image created by the media. Fahrenheit 451 focuses on a dystopian society, taken place in the future, where technology is deeply engraved into the people’s lifestyle. With technology playing a major role in their lives, the people are isolated from their world as they are not exposed to many aspects of being human—knowledgeRead MoreRay Bradbury s Fahrenheit 4512323 Words   |  10 PagesPicture a world where one must meet the expectations of being normal, where diversity is not accepted, or even worse, a detached society where emotions no longer exist. By reading the first few pages of Fahrenheit 451, readers immediately get the feeling of a dystopian society. Firemen creating fires, instead of extinguishing them, and technology that has taken their society to a whole new level of entertainment. These are exaggerated ideas right off the bat, yet Ray Bradbury carries the readersRead MoreHuman Nature In Fahrenheit 4511349 Words   |  6 Pagesof human nature. The Crucible a play by Arthur Miller, is an allegory for the Cold War politics and examines the tensions that occur between one s perception of what is moral according to human nature when constrained by a theocratic society. Fahrenheit 451 a dystopian novel by Ray Bradbury, shows how oppressive governments can never succeed in trying to force conformity in one s human nature. The Lottery is a dystopian shirt story, by Shirley Jackson and demonstrates conformity and rebellion, andRead MoreCritics of Novel 1984 by George Orwell14914 Words   |  60 Pagesimportant aspects of 1984: The setting of 1984 is a dystopia: an imagined world that is far worse than our own, as opposed to a utopia, which is an ideal place or state. Other dystopian novels include Aldous Huxleys Brave New World, Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451, and Orwells own Animal Farm. When George Orwell wrote 1984, the year that gives the book its title was still almost 40 years in the future. Some of the things Orwell imagined that would come to pass were the telescreen, a TV that observes thoseRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagesmention the word â€Å"declarative.† Also, we usually don’t use the word â€Å"logically.† ────CONCEPT CHECK──── Create two sentences about basketball that are inconsistent with each other. ────5 Examples of Good Reasoning So far weve explored the importance of reasoning logically in situations that require a decision—either a decision about what to do or a decision about what to believe. Along the way weve introduced a variety of rules of thumb for good reasoning, that is, high-quality reasoning

Antennas for Wireless Sensor Networks- Free-Samples for Students

Questions: 1.Provide an Opinion regarding which antenna types will become the Dominant Players in the future of medium- and long-distance Wireless links 2.Compare and contrast the multiplexing techniques CDMA and FDMA in the area of Wireless Networking? Answers: 1.Differences Yagi, horn, cellular antenna Yagi antenna is also known as the Yagi-Uda array is the directional antenna which is often used for the communication whenever the frequency is above 10 MHz. This kind of antenna continues to be popular among the Amateur radio and the Citizen Band radio providers (Ammann John, 2005). It will be utilized at a number of the surface in the installation of the satellite communications techniques (Ammann John, 2005). The antenna offers unidirectional radiation in addition to the response pattern, however it concentrates the radiations and the response. Strengths It has a gain which allow a lower strength of the signal to be received. It has a directivity which enables the interference levels to be minimized. It design of the antenna is able to filter on the signal noise which is coming from the opposite direction (Chieh, Dick, Loui Rockway, 2014). This consequently tends to make Yagis the right choice when you have a high demand application for example the telecommunications. It is significantly simpler to aim the Yagi antenna than a few of the other arrays. There construction causes them to be much simpler to mount on the vertical towers. Weaknesses There is limitation of the bandwidth or the frequency. In case an individuals wants to have a high gain level, the antenna need to be very long. This kind of antenna experiences a degradation for the electrical characteristics as one moves away from the frequency range (Chieh, Dick, Loui Rockway, 2014). Horn antenna This really is an antenna which consist of the flaring metal waveguide which is shaped similar to the horn to direct the radio waves in the beam (Pelletier, Olvera-Hernandez, Watfa Ahmad, 2017). The horn has been utilized extensively especially to the UHF and the microwave frequencies, which is above the 300 MHz. Strengths Impedance matching is very good It has a greater directivity There is narrower beam width There is standing waves which are avoided. Weaknesses The designing of the flare perspective determines on the directivity The flare angle in addition to the length of the flare really should not be very small. Cellular antenna This antenna is utilized in the alignment with the powered signal booster for example the inline amplifier, repeater or even the connected directly to cell phone or maybe other devices which are with the cell adapter cable or even the coax adapter (Chieh, Dick, Loui Rockway, 2014). Strengths There is increased number of the users, due to the targeted nature of the frequencies of the antenna could be reused allowing on the increased on the user number. There is increased bandwidth: the bandwidth which is available increase from the reuse of the frequencies and adaptive arrays (Chiu, Liu, Gao Ying, 2013). Weaknesses It is more expensive, the cellular antenna are very complex, which uses the latest processing technology. There is the issue of location. The location needs to be considered that is optimal operation for the antenna. The antenna which would become dominant in these three would be cellular antenna. The reason for the choice is that there is increased number of users, as a result of the target frequencies and there is increased bandwidth (Chiu, Liu, Gao Ying, 2013). 2. Compare and contrast CDMA and FDMA. Similarities In both of these two techniques of wireless networking they uses the access technology. This is where the users is allowed to access on the single channels via the use of the resource allocation system. The users are able to establish on the communication within the network (Nilsson, 2009). In both there is the sending and receiving of the data which allows the flexible allocation of the resources. Additionally, both of these technologies have been used in the mobile devices application where the FDMA has been the analog version and the CDMA has been the latest technology through use of the 3G technology (Nilsson, 2009). Contrast CDMA is the telecommunication technique that is used in most radio communicating organization in order to access the communicating channels within minimum time whereas in FDMA is the technique which is used in the advanced Mobile Phone (Pelletier, Olvera-Hernandez, Watfa Ahmad, 2017). Additionally, when it comes to the FDMA the technique is used for the analogue mode of transmission, the technique is not effective in the transmission of the digital signal whereas when it comes to CDMA it is digital mode of the transmission which is 3G technology (Waldschmidt, Fugen Wiesbeck, 2002). In the FDMA technique it allows the total available bandwidth to be divided into the various frequencies whereas when it comes to CDMA the users are provided with the communication platform in which each is given the equal bandwidth level that has a similar speed of transmission as well as the same frequency. In the CDMA there is no fixed number of the users as comparison to the FDMA techniques (Pelletie r, Olvera-Hernandez, Watfa Ahmad, 2017). Moreover, the FDMA coordinates the access of the frequencies through the multiple users whereas when it comes to CDMA the access of the frequencies is through single users. The FDMA technology is used in the analog mobile phones whereas the CDMA uses the 3G technology which is used in most of the mobile devices References Ammann, M., John, M. (2005). Optimum design of the printed strip monopole. Chieh, J. C. S., Dick, B., Loui, S., Rockway, J. D. (2014). Development of a Ku-band corrugated conical horn using 3-D print technology. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 13, 201-204. Chiu, C. Y., Liu, X., Gao, F., Ying, Z. (2013, April). Constraints and performances of various antenna types in commercial mobile terminals. In Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013 7th European Conference on (pp. 894-897). IEEE. Pelletier, G., Olvera-Hernandez, U., Watfa, M., Ahmad, S. (2017). U.S. Patent No. 9,648,657. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Nilsson, M. (2009, May). Directional antennas for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. 9th Scandinavian Workshop on Wireless Adhoc Networks (Adhoc'09). Waldschmidt, C., Fugen, T., Wiesbeck, W. (2002). Spiral and dipole antennas for indoor MIMO-systems. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 1(1), 176-178.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Metamorphosis of Guy Montag Essay Example For Students

The Metamorphosis of Guy Montag Essay Ray Bradbury originally wrote his novel, Fahrenheit 451, as an indictment against the censorship evident during the McCarthy era of America, and it has since become one of the few modern science fiction books that can be considered a classic. The adulation of this novel is due to its plethora of symbols, metaphors, and character development. Bradburys character development is singularly impressive in this book because he shows the evolution of the main character, Guy Montag, from book-burner to living-book (Johnson 111). His maturity is displayed by his growing understanding of the world in which he lives and by seeing the flaws in his society. Bradbury illustrates Montags metamorphosis with him changing from a mindless burning drone to his maturation and acceptance into a society of like-minded booklovers. We will write a custom essay on The Metamorphosis of Guy Montag specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The first words of Bradburys novel state, it was a pleasure to burn (Bradbury 3). These words sum up the beginning character of Montag; he enjoys burning, and his job is to answer alarms not to put out fires, but to start them (Moore 103). Guy Montag is a fireman, a man who is trained to spray kerosene on books, and light them in a spectacular show. He has never questioned his job or the reasoning behind burning books. He takes pride in his position, even shines his beetle-colored helmet as he hangs it on its hook (Bradbury 4). With fire Montag brings down the tatters and charcoal ruins of history, and he revels in the power of destruction that fire holds (Bradbury 3). His only view of fire is a product of his job as a fireman; he sees fire as a machine, which simply burns and devours the freedom of the people. In this period of his life, Montag feels comfortable with machine, especially the machines that produce fire. He sees nothing wrong when his wife lip-reads his words instead of listening to him speak. When Montag first meets his young neighbor, Clarisse, he thinks of her in a mechanical mindset (Johnson 111). He sees them walking, as if fixed to a sliding walk, letting the motion of the wind and the leaves carry them forward (Bradbury 5). Hence, Montag feels comfortable around the soulless technology of his society; he loves to burn and to destroy, and he cannot think about the morals that surround his job and his culture. Montag is first pushed towards rejecting his society when he meets Clarisse. She is brave enough to question society and in doing so causes Montag to question the morals of his civilization. Clarisse is the one who represents those imaginative values that Montag lacks and which he must acquire and she awakens in him the desire to read (Touponce 126-8). Montags first reaction is to laugh off Clarisses questions; he seems uneasy with the thought of reading. His emotions and laughing reaction reveal his nervousness around a young girl, who can so easily challenge the values that he has followed all his life. Clarisse is also important because she awakens Montag to the natural world. She asks him if he knew there was a man on the moon, or if he knew what it means when a dandelion rubs off on a chin. Clarisse is the one who introduces Bradburys theme that nature is good and technology is bad (Huntington 113). Clarisse lets Montag experience freedom from his society because the novel expresses this vision of freedom with images of sentimentalized nature (Huntington 112). She leaves him feeling that something in Montags world has changed, that he was not happyhe wore his happiness like a mask and the girl had run off across the lawn with the mask (Bradbury 12). Montag can no longer accept the world the way it is, and thus, either he, or it, must change. He then comes home to his wife, Mildred, to find her near death from a suicide attempt. .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 , .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 .postImageUrl , .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 , .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707:hover , .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707:visited , .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707:active { border:0!important; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707:active , .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707 .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud9b4dc2943e0bbbcb00cce9d8550f707:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Peace is the sturdy child of terror. For me, such Essay Montag watches as two employees use a sinister machine to purge his wife of the poison. Montag sees the machine as black cobra, and he wonders if it sucks out all the poisons accumulated with the years (Bradbury 14). Thus, Montag is beginning to view machines as inhuman and unnatural. Mildred is a .

Monday, March 16, 2020

moderization essays

moderization essays After 1500 there were many signs that a new age of world history was beginning, for example the discovery of America and the first European enterprises in Africa. This "new age" was dominated by the astonishing success of one civilization among many, that of Europe. There was more and more continuous interconnection between events in all countries, but it is to be explained by European efforts. Europeans eventually became "masters of the globe" and they used their mastery to make the world one. That resulted in a unity of world history that can be detected until today. Politics, empire-building, and military expansion were only a tiny part of what was going on. Besides the economic integration of the globe there was a much more important process going on: The spreading of assumptions and ideas. The result was to be "One World." The age of independent The history of the centuries since 1500 can be described as a series of wars and violent struggles. Obviously men in different countries did not like another much more than their predecessors did. However, they were much more alike than their ancestors were, which was an outcome of what we now call modernization. One could also say that the world was Europeanized, for modernization was a matter of ideas and techniques which have an European origin. It was with the modernization of Europe that the unification of world history began. A great change in Europe was the starting-point of modern history. There was a continuing economic predominance of agriculture. Agricultural progress increasingly took two main forms: Orientation towards the market, and technical innovation. They were interconnected. A large population in the neighborhood meant a market and therefore an incentive. Even in the fifteenth century the inhabitants of so called  ³low countries ² were already ...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Managing ressources and operations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Managing ressources and operations - Essay Example Recently, in some studies regarding the demand of consumers for durable goods (Goeree, 2008 and Kim et al., 2009) and non-durable goods (Bruno and Vilcassim, 2008) it was found that while purchasing the goods be it a vehicle as well, consumers consider two aspects i.e. search cost and account travel. Most important factor according to Bucklin et al. (2008) that is considered by the customers is the cost and safety of SUVs. Bucklin et al. (2008) in their study concluded that the car manufacturers need to ensure that their production facilities are in low cost areas so that they are able to manufacture cars at reasonable prices. PPQ parts are planning to do expansion in other countries so that it can provide service to other markets and earn more profits. Currently, the company has profit margin rate of 6% which is on the same level as industry average. In order to help the company expand by following the right strategy, it is suggested that it starts its production in developing country such as China and try to capture SUVs market share in other countries. In order to expand in other countries, it is vital for PPQ parts to do its external analysis so that it has an idea about the hurdles that it might encounter while expansion. The factors that are most likely to impact the production and sales of SUVs are economic, political, social, cultural and environmental factors of the countries. 1. China political environment is very stable and the government encourages foreign companies to set up their facilities in the county. The government also gives grants to the foreign investors so that both the countries get benefited from the investment. However, Chinese government imposes some regulations that the company employs more than 30% of their local residents and the company will have to comply with some rules and regulations. 2. Since